David Moffette (Assistant Professor) and Nevena Aksin (recent MA graduate) published an article titled "Fighting Human Smuggling or Criminalizing Refugees? Regimes of Justification in and around R v Appulonappa" in the Canadian Journal of Law and Society. As the authors explain, "following the arrival of the MV Ocean Lady in 2009, four men were charged with human smuggling under s. 117 of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act for having helped Sri Lankan asylum seekers reach Canada." They explain that "the case made its way to the Supreme Court and, in 2015, the court ruled in R v Appulonappa that s. 117 was too broad, potentially criminalizing humanitarian workers and family members who help transport asylum seekers". In this article, the authors "draw from pragmatic sociology to study the regimes of justification mobilized by various actors involved in, and around, R v Appulonappa, [focusing] on two sites of contestation that crystalized around divergent conceptions of fairness and safety, [and] discussing how competing regimes of justification were used to advance stakeholder’s positions."